This chapter explores the events that brought the cultures of Europe and Africa to the Americas and details the birth of a new nation.

1.1 Converging Cultures

Section 1 explores how societies in North America have changed over time and how European colonies developed. Thousands of years before Christopher Columbus and other European explorers set foot in America, Native Americans began planting and raising crops. By the time of Columbus began his voyages in the late fifteenth century, a wide range of civilizations and languages existed in North America. Once explorers learned that Columbus had reached new lands, other European explorations began to search for new territory. New settlers looked to enslaved Africans to help farm. The harsh treatment of the Africans was a sharp contrast to the lives of the privileged. While enslaved Africans came to the new world against their wills, people seeking religious and economic relief flooded the Americas by the thousands.

1.2 Dissent and Independence

Section 2 examines the relationship between the colonists and the crown, leading to the colonists' eventual independence. English Parliament passed Navigation Acts preventing colonists from trading goods with any country other than England. During that time, America saw the emergence of the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening. Great Britain faced steep debts after its victory in the French and Indian War, and many leaders believed that the colonists should share in the burden of repaying those debts. Imposed taxes outraged colonists, and they declared their independence from England. Outnumbered in size, funding, and discipline, the Continental Army faced a daunting task, but victory was finally realized after winning the last major battle in Yorktown, Virginia in the fall of 1781.

1.3 The Constitution

Section 3 describes the Constitution. The Framers crafted a living document that included a system to allow the Constitution to be amended. The Constitution provided for a separation of federal power among the three branches of government-executive, legislative, and judicial-and created a system of checks and balances. The Bill of Rights was devised to protect individual freedoms. In return for their citizenship, citizens are expected to perform certain duties and to fulfill certain responsibilities.



Unit 1 Part 1

civilization, joint-stock company, Pilgrim, subsistence farming, proprietary colony, indentured servant, triangular trade, slave code

People and Terms
Christopher Columbus, William Penn

How did climate and food sources help shape Native American lifestyles?
Why did millions of Native Americans die as a result of contact with Europeans?
Why did English colonists come to America?
How did the types of settlements influence the way each was governed?

What groups faced discrimination in colonial times?

Briefly explain how the English colonies came into being. ( you should have 13 entries)

Part 2


mercantilism, Enlightenment, Great Awakening, customs duty, committee of correspondence, minuteman

People and Terms
John Locke, Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, Intolerable Acts, George Washington, Declaration of Independence

describe the causes that led the colonies to declare their independence.
In what ways did the Navigation Acts affect trade in the colonies?
How did the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening affect the established order

What disagreements arose between Britain and the colonies in the 1700s?
Why did the colonies declare their independence?
Which major battle during the war was a turning point for the Americans?
indicate ways in which colonists defied Britain’s attempts at regulation and taxation.
Writing in History - Imagine you are a colonist in 1767, unhappy about Britain’s policies toward the colonies. Write a pamphlet explaining your position and urging other colonists to support resistance efforts.


Part 3

republic, recession, popular sovereignty, federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, veto, amendment, ratification

People and Terms
Articles of Confederation, Northwest Ordinance, Shays’s Rebellion, Constitutional Convention, Great Compromise, Three-Fifths Compromise, Federalists, Antifederalists

In what ways was the Confederation Congress ineffective?
What was Shays's Rebellion
Describe the "northwest ordinance"

What compromises did the delegates agree on during the convention?
Why was it important for slave states to have slaves counted in the population?
What does "bi-lateral house mean"?
Do you think we are better off with a two house system or should we have a one house legislature?

What is the process of amending the Constitution
Why did authors write The Federalist Papers

Why was it important for Virginia and New York to ratify the Constitution, even after the required nine states had done so?
list the compromises the Founders reached at the Constitutional Convention.
List in chronological order states that ratified the Constitution
Why were there demands for a "Bill of Rights" before the Constitution could be ratified