The Birth of Modern America

task #1
Download Chapter 3

Task #2
Define content vocabulary, put key terms and definitions from section #1 on your wiki page (create a new page for Unit #3)

Task #3
USE KEYNOTE to identify people and terms
  • place image and 5 key facts about person or term on a keynote slide
  • save slides as movie and set transition to 7 seconds
  • export to vimeo and embed on your wiki page

Section #1

Content Vocabulary
placer mining, quartz mining, vigilance committee, open range, long drive,homestead, assimilate
People and Terms to Identify
Henry Comstock, Homestead Act, Indian Peace Commission, Sitting Bull, Ghost Dance, Dawes Act

Section #2

Content Vocabulary
gross national product, entrepreneur, laissez-faire, corporation, vertical integration, horizontal integration, monopoly, Marxism, industrial union, closed shop
People and Terms to Identify
Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Alva Edison, Pacific Railway Act, Andrew Carnegie, American Federation of Labor, Samuel Gompers

Section #3

Content Vocabulary
nativism, tenement, political machine, graft
People and Terms to Identify
Chinese Exclusion Act, William M. “Boss” Tweed

Section #4

Content Vocabulary
individualism, Social Darwinism, philan- thropy, settlement house, Americanization
People and Terms to Identify
Gilded Age, Herbert Spencer, Social Gospel, Dwight L. Moody, Booker T. Washington

Section #5

Vocabulary Define:
volume, populism, inflation, deflation, graduated income tax, poll tax, prospective, grandfather clause, segregation, Jim Crow laws.
People and Terms: Identify:
Stalwart, Pendleton Act, Interstate Commerce Act, Grange, People’s Party, William Jennings Bryan, Ida B. Wells, W.E.B. DuBois.

Chapter 3: The Birth of Modern America

Chapter Overview

This chapter traces the growth and development of the United States from its early beginnings to its rise as the world's leading industrial power, taking a close look at the impact of these events on society.

3.1 Settling the West

Section 1 discusses how miners, ranchers, and farmers migrated West after the Civil War to search for economic opportunities and the impact this move had on the land and the people living there. The West's rich deposits of gold, silver, and copper attracted droves of settlers to the Rocky Mountains. The flurry of mining activity throughout the West spurred the building of railroads through the Rocky Mountains and turned supply posts into large cities. The new rail lines attracted others to the region. Some Americans established cattle ranches on the Great Plains. On the open range, cowhands rounded up Texas longhorns and drove them along cattle trails to the railroad for shipment east. The construction of the railroads also provided settlers easy access to the vast western Plains. Settlers were drawn by the government's offers of cheap land and a new law that protected their property rights. Life on the Great Plains was difficult, but those who braved the conditions found success in wheat farming. By the 1880s the United States had become the world's leading exporter of wheat. In contrast to these successes, the Plains Indians suffered. The farmers, miners, and ranchers that poured onto the Plains during the late 1800s deprived Native Americans of their hunting grounds, wiped out the buffalo, and often forced Plains Indians to relocate. The Plains Indians attempted to defend their land and preserve their way of life. Battles between Native American nations and the American army led to bloodshed. Congress tried to put an end to Native American resistance by establishing reservations, but these attempts to replace Native American culture with a new lifestyle failed. Their traditional way of life, based on the migrating buffalo, had been wiped out with the herds.

3.2 Industrialization

Section 2 discusses the factors that contributed to the industrialization of the United States in the late 1800s and traces the rise of big business in America. With an abundance of natural resources and able workers, the United States turned its focus to technology and industry after the Civil War. Entrepreneurs and European investors financed industries and a flood of new inventions that transformed American communications and manufacturing and improved transportation. In the late 1800s, the federal government's economic policies fostered the growth of free enterprise, while its high tariffs encouraged American industrial growth by reducing demand for foreign goods. As industry expanded, millions of Americans left their farms to work in mines and factories. By the early 1900s, the United States was the world's leading industrial nation. Railroads revolutionized transportation, broadened markets, and stimulated the economy. During the late 1800s, corporations developed new technologies and built large manufacturing facilities. Shrewd corporate leaders used company mergers to build huge empires. Not everyone prospered from this revolution, however. In the late 1800s, industrial workers labored long hours under difficult, often dangerous, conditions. Many workers decided to improve their situations by organizing trade and industrial unions. Union organizers, however, found opposition in employers, the courts, and those who thought unions threatened basic American institutions. While industrial unions generally failed, trade unions-unions limited to people with specific skills-survived.

3.3 Immigration and Urbanization

Section 3 details how immigration affected the United States and also focuses on the country's move to an urban society. Europeans came to the United States for many reasons. Many came for work, to avoid military service, or to avoid religious persecution. However, the voyage was often plagued by overcrowding and dirty accommodations. After arrival, immigrants shuffled through Ellis Island for inspection. Many families were separated. Asian immigration surged after the discovery of gold in California, but in time, nativism drew a call for immigration restrictions. Other problems surfaced as the country grew more urbanized. Immigrants filled American cities, working in rapidly expanding factories. They often labored long hours for little pay, and many children went to work to help pay the bills. The cities were divided into classes, and divisions spread to concerns about the rise in crime, fire, disease, and pollution.

3.4 Early Reforms in a Gilded Age

Section 4 examines the effects of industrialization and urbanization on society and subsequent efforts for social reform. Industrialism and urbanization changed not only the way Americans looked at themselves, but also how they approached society. The Gilded Age gave rise to new values, art, and entertainment. One strong outcome was the belief that people could rise in society, limited only by their talents and commitment. Social Darwinism reinforced this idea, arguing that plant and animal life had evolved in a process known as natural selection. While Darwin looked at the world scientifically, realism was an artistic movement that focused on capturing the world as artists saw it. Americans argued over how to use new ideas to address society's problems. Poverty became central to issues addressed by organizations like the Young Men's Christian Association.

3.5 Politics and Reform

Section 5 highlights how politics hindered reform efforts and how African Americans faced increasing discrimination during the late 1800s. The two-party system caused a stalemate in Washington in the late 1800s. The government had difficulty addressing national issues due to the nearly even distribution of power between Republicans and Democrats. When Republicans won control of both houses of Congress and the White House in 1888, they pushed through new economic reforms. These reforms, however, transformed the budget surplus into a budget deficit. Unhappy with the two-party system and their economic outlook, many farmers turned to populism. Farmers organized into the Grange, the Greenback Party, and the Farmers' Alliance. The main objective of the party was to expand the powers of the federal government to protect farmers. Though the Populists never won a presidential election, they inspired reforms that were later adopted by other parties. Following the Civil War, segregation came into play, and African Americans were faced with intolerance, violence, and economic hardship. Encouraged by the Supreme Court's decision to overturn the Civil Rights Act of 1875, Southern States passed a series of laws that reinforced segregation. Another Supreme Court ruling endorsed "separate but equal" facilities for African Americans, and the South found its legal basis for discrimination. As racial brutality, mob violence, and lynchings increased during the late 1800s, African Americans responded with protests against violence, calls for compromise, and demands for equality.